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On Aristotle's "Metaphysics 13–14"
Syrianus, originally from Alexandria, moved to Athens and became the head of the Academy there after the death of Plutarch of Athens. Syrianus attacked Aristotle in his commentary on Books 13 and 14 of the "Metaphysics", just as his pupil Proclus was...

On Aristotle's "Nicomachean Ethics 1–4, 7–8"
Aspasius' commentary on the "Nicomachean Ethics", of which six books have come down to us, is the oldest surviving Greek commentary on any of Aristotle's works, dating to the middle of the second century AD. It offers precious insight into the...

Milton among the Philosophers
Poetry and Materialism in Seventeenth-Century England
Stephen M. Fallon
While Johnson charged that Milton "unhappily perplexed his poetry with his philosophy," Stephen M. Fallon argues that the relationship between Milton's philosophy and the poetry of Paradise Lost is a happy one. The author examines Milton's thought in...

Aristotle's "Problemata" in Different Times and Tongues
Mediaevalia Lovaniensia 39 Communication leads to an evolution of knowledge, and the free exchange of knowledge leads to fresh findings. In the Middle Ages things were no different. The inheritance of ancient knowledge deeply influenced medieval...

Divine Providence
The Molinist Account
Thomas P. Flint
Thomas P. Flint develops and defends the idea of divine providence sketched by Luis de Molina, the sixteenth-century Jesuit theologian. The Molinist account of divine providence reconciles two claims long thought to be incompatible: that God is the...

Brutal Reasoning
Animals, Rationality, and Humanity in Early Modern England
Erica Fudge
Early modern English thinkers were fascinated by the subject of animal rationality, even before the appearance of Descartes's Discourse on the Method (1637) and its famous declaration of the automatism of animals. But as Erica Fudge relates in Brutal...

Aristotle and Other Platonists
Lloyd P. Gerson
"Aristotle versus Plato. For a long time that is the angle from which the tale has been told, in textbooks on the history of philosophy and to university students. Aristotle's philosophy, so the story goes, was au fond in opposition to Plato's. But it...

Henry of Ghent
Metaphysics and the "Trinity"
Juan Carlos Flores
Ancient and Medieval Philosophy, Series 1, No. 36 Henry of Ghent stands out as a leading thinker, together with Thomas Aquinas and Bonaventure, of the second half of the thirteenth century. His rich and multifaceted thought influenced many different...

On Aristotle's "On the Soul 1.3–5"
This text by Philoponus rejects accounts of soul, or as we would say of mind, which define it as moving, as cognitive, or in physical terms. Chapter 3 considers Aristotle's attack on the idea that the soul is in motion. This was an attack partly on...

Against Proclus' "On the Eternity of the World 12–18"
In chapters 12-18 of "Against Proclus", Philoponus continues to do battle against Proclus' arguments for the beginninglessness and everlastingness of the ordered universe. In this final section there are three notable issues under discussion. The...

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